Tag Archive: relativity


WAVE/PARTICLE :: UNCERTAINTY=POSITION/MOMENTUM

In Einstein’s 1917 paper The Quantum Theory of Radiation, photons stimulate the emission of photons by striking and being absorbed by molecules and by raising energy to the point at which new photons are emitted, thus lowering the energy (coincidentally, the theory behind the MASER, LASER, and quantum entanglement) by utilizing the equivalence of mass and energy (e=mc2). This posits the existence of the light quantum, radical since photons were not recognized as yet by the physics community, hence the title. Einstein felt his theory had a weakness—he really wanted there to be a “union with wave theory” and found this to be the greatest weakness of the quantum theory of radiation. He is searching for something but cannot reach it. He knows there must be something about this that explains particle-wave duality but cannot come up with it utilizing the level of experimental knowledge of the time, and cannot therefore arrive at ways to experimentally verify what he intuitively “knows” is true.

Now (2014), a hundred years later, the gap is closed. New work (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/24/quantum-physics-easier-to-understand_n_6370570.html) suggests wave and particle duality are the equivalent of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in which there is a relative duality between position and momentum. That is, like particles vs. waves, position and momentum can only be measured separately—if one measures a particle’s position one can no longer measure it’s momentum–but are really identical.   Vice versa if one measures its position and knows where it is, how fast it is going can no longer be measured. This article states that they are relative—two sides of the same coin.  To put it bluntly, momentum and position are relative, just as space and time are relative and particle and wave are relative.

The equivalence principle founds much of Einstein’s later work and led to the generalization of the Special Theory of Relativity. It took from 1905 until 1916 to attain this goal in the Theory of General Relativity, which forced physics to relativize space and time. Now the principle of equivalence leads to a further relativisation—particle and wave are now relative not only to each other but to position and momentum. It took a century but Einstein was proven right again. What interests me is the implication that there might be a bridge here between quantum theory and relativity theory.

The implications of equivalence can immediately be applied to cryptology. What simple mathematical formula describes this four-part harmony between matter, energy, where that matter is, and how fast it is moving? With so many variables, we should be able to avoid anyone hacking into and stealing records of our credit cards because they are encrypted on so many levels. For me—leaving cryptologists to the Turing test—I ask the question: what simple mathematical formula describes this four-part harmony?            I sense we are approaching unity—the nexus of Einstein’s model of a macro universe and the Copenhagen school quantum theory of Bohr, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Schrödinger. This nexus fascinates me because I do not believe Einstein would have predicted it and neither would Heisenberg. This may throw light on whether or not Schrödinger’s cat is alive or dead.

Einstein’s quest for a unified theory extends: Kaluza-Klein theory adds a 5th dimension, string theory adds six more to that, and still there is no experimental proof that there is a 5th or an 11th dimension. The first—Kaluza-Klein— disappointed Einstein secondary to lack of data, and the second—string theory/M theory—disappoints a couple of generations of string theorists. What if the results of the classical double-slit experiment—the essential paradigm of particle-wave interaction—represent Einstein’s idea that both wave-particle and uncertainty theory are relative to one another? Well, they are, but only if measuring momentum or position are flip sides of the coin of the principle of uncertainty and there is an equivalence between this and wave-particle theory.

I visualize a multidimensional propagating wave whose particle manifestation can be measured either as velocity or position. It’s like one of the Star Trek movies came to life and you can beam up Captain Kirk. Add to this the relativity of space and time and I see the Tardis ripping through the fabric of the elegant universe.

Too bad the article I read skims the finding because, even though I AM NO MATHEMATICIAN, I’D LIKE TO SEE SOME FORMULAE. THE NEXT STEP IS THE FORMALIZATION OF THESE EQUIVALENCIES SO AS TO MAKE PREDICTIONS. THAT’S when the pedal hits the metal!

Consider a black hole similarly to the way one considers a star, except you can’t see it.  Black holes have prominences, ejects large bodies of matter and energy along gravitational warps, and matter and energy explode along the poles of their revolving bodies.  No one can directly observe black holes but for the effects they have on their environment.  So, if they are stars, similar to a neutron star, revolving at a speed close to that of light, they will attract to them matter and energy which this extreme gravity well weaves into long strings at the most basic—Planck length—level of existence and spin out long bursts of gamma radiation which are composed of strings at the higher levels of energy.  At some high level of energy the string may become transparent to the gravity well of the hole.  In a way the well is spinning and that which enters the hole’s accretion disk goes down in a vortex of increasingly energetic particles like water being drained from a sink.

At the higher energies I posit an increase in dimensional unfolding unseen at the lower energies of the observable universe such that, at some point or threshold, the string forms, but it is transparent to the laws of gravity.  That string weaves itself around and vibrates at a high pitch which in effect bends space and time to the breaking point, the point reached at the earliest point of origin—the big bang.  That is to say its transparency to the laws of Einsteinian physics permits it to inflate faster than the speed of light because of the energy levels attained in the maw of the spinning, waving, sucking vortex—and the string escapes.  That it is observable at all is the resultant of the string—a long line of ejectant observable in quasars—returning to a level of energy at a distance from the source subjecting it once again to the laws of physics operant in the macro universe where gravity applies and the speed of light is a constant.

In a way, you can picture it as a gravity well.  Matter spins around it as it descends the well.  Matter passes through the event horizon and its energy increases as it spins ever faster the closer it approaches the center  of the well.  When it goes through the bottom of the well it has reached the Planck length of 10-33.  It drains through to the “other side,” transparent to gravity, faster than the speed of light—superluminal—along a straight line, kind of like going through a worm hole which warps space-time so that it reappears outside the event horizon where it once again can be observed.  The stuff of our universe is going down the drain and is spun into an ejectant and thrown off much like a spider composes its web of highly gelatinous silk that is extremely sticky and which has extraordinary tensile strength.

Energy at such metaphysical levels does not obey the laws of the physical universe.  But, that energy condenses matter and energy along its path so that it is observable in the form of cosmic radiation emitted from a quasar.  Young stars are born from the coalescence of energy around these vibrating strings.  The black hole births the stars by destroying the old shape and form of the matter/energy.

Once information is destroyed by the swallowing of the energy after it enters the accretion disk, it comes out the other end and the information is restored.  The process of evolution is initiated once that occurs.  Time has  been suspended once the energy reaches the 11th power.  When the 11th dimension unfolds, all hell breaks loose!  The inflaton is unleashed.  Nothing happens.  The nothing referred to in the Tao seems to me to relate to what cannot be observed “because” on that “plane of reality” a universe which follows its own laws exists within which these forces operate out of our space-time continuum.

I suppose, since I am speaking metaphorically throughout this thought piece or gedankenstücke, we are then in a kind of exalted state in which space-time does not exist, where eternity replaces space-time.  Nothing is no longer the negation of thing, but is in itself a plane of existence that occurs only at the Planck length at the Planck energy, attainable in black holes.

The hole becomes a spider, spinning out its web of power.  In effect, the web creates space-time.  In a way this could be a theory of continuous creation.  Space-time comes from somewhere, so why not postulate a higher level of unfolded 11th dimensional “reality” out of which space-time emerges?  In space-time, as opposed to eternity, the 7 dimensions fold up into unexpressed Calabi-Yau manifolds, multi-dimensional curlicues, leaving the 4 dimensions of our observable universe according to M Theory, the meta-string theory now referred to as Superstring Theory.  In a way I’m stating that if M Theory is correct, and at the levels of energy in black holes potent enough to light up into a quasar, the dimensions unfold—out of nothing comes something, out of metaphysics comes physics.

I could go on to make a connection between metaphysics and Metaphysics.  But here I am on shakier ground (if that is possible considering the thesis I am proposing is contrary to the laws of physics as we know them), so I will only suggest a correspondence.  If “true,” the black hole might become a metaphor for God the creator.  The creator would be the Creator.  I don’t think this is a stretch since religion appears to have prefigured not only physics but psychology and chemistry.  Religious thinking seems to me to be an intuitive grasp of our world.  Creation myths emanate from intuitive apprehension of worlds beyond our own.  Artist create pieces describing these worlds.  Now we have computer-generated graphics of galaxies colliding; then we had Jacob’s Ladder, a heaven and a hell, incarnation and reincarnation, levels of consciousness both previous to and following death, a spirit realm.  The major theses of western and non-western religions speak of realms beyond our own in strong terms.  All I am saying is they resonate with some of the ideas I am presenting above, but in a pre-scientific manner of thinking.

I am using words to describe a compositional device I utilized when composing my piece in seven movements, Black Hole.  In it, I place in the middle a movement that is conceived as the movement of energy from the heart of the black hole and is described in the literature as a jet.  However, I do not see jets coming from black holes like normal astrophysicists do (surprise).  I see them as 11-dimensional jets defying the laws of physics—M Theory—which I extend as a form of artistic license.  If you want to hear this piece it is recorded by PRO VISO and is out of print.  On special request I can make it available.  Please correspond to me through this post if you want me to burn a copy for you.

The strength of my speculations, axioms, and theses ultimately rests on observation.  Hopefully, mathematical models can be developed or have already been developed describing these interactions.  Nothing becomes everything and every thing becomes nothing.

LIVING A QUANTUM LIFE

My wife, Judy, and I were having dinner with our friends Billy Stein and his wife Daniella tonight and over a wonderful steamed whole fish Billy asked me to explain to Daniella what I was trying to say when I used the rainbow metaphor which I published in the last two posts. Rainbows, expanding on my understanding, do not and do exist at the same time. They are not three dimensional, you cannot touch one, and are not concrete, plus no rainbow is the same for you as it is for me, I said. Water droplets prismatically reflect back to the viewer photons of varying wavelengths so we see ROYGBIV in one order, and VIBGYOR in the second order of rainbow (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet). The sun must be directly behind us and the rainbow appears directly in front of us; therefore my head being in a different place from yours, we cannot see the same rainbow, even though we can share it, making believe we are seeing the same one.

I went on to say the metaphor hit me when I was reading The Sun’s Heartbeat (Bob Berman, Little, Brown, 2011) and Berman described rainbows. The rainbow exists in spacetime, yet photons exist in quantum reality. We are connected on the quantum level in more than one way, something I find pleasing and satisfying (see earlier posts in M2-Theory.com). But, while I may be in the same light cone you are in and we converse within that context, or continuum, we cannot be experiencing things in the same way. I think we carry around our own frame, look at things from a slightly different place, in a different spacetime from each other—everything being relative. That I can talk to you depends more than upon sound waves and syntactical structures within our forebrains, Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. My heretical and unproven hypothesis suggests quantum entanglement accounts for some of our ability to understand one another—again something I develop more fully elsewhere (MIND AND MATTER, MIND AND LOGIC, MIND AND ACAUSAL MEANINGFUL “COINCIDENCE”: IS MIND A QUANTUM PERCEPTION OF A BRAIN SITUATED IN SPACETIME?).

I was starting to reach a wall so I thought it might help if I brought in another wackadoodle idea of mine, that quantum superposition helps artists make artistic decisions faster than thought. Given that we share a light cone—an area of spacetime that is defined as the distance between two objects that light can travel within, and are entangled—an indefinable distance in which subatomic particles that are entangled interact instantly, whether within or without the light cone, and given the concept of quantum superposition in which multiple possible events may occur but have not, e.g., Schrödinger’s cat, I can show how I as a musician can play the next note using a decision process that moves faster than thought. This counts as a big idea.

Any artist faces choices. Poets must choose the next word, artists the next brush stroke, sculptors the next chisel point, musicians the next note, composers the next notes, dancers the next move, and so forth. Not done in a vacuum, preceding notes—for the musician, to stay within a medium with which I am most comfortable but which translates into other mediums and art forms—do not causally predict notes that follow. Yes, there are parameters; there is a structure of a tune, a history of how notes have been used within tonal structures, a history of what other musicians played on those tunes, and even histories of what the musicians you are playing with now have done with you. At any point while improvising, I get to play a range of notes. Think of all of them in potentia, potential notes that are in a state of quantum superposition. The notes up till now allow more than one note of differential duration and power to be played, or as I prefer to think, for the wave to collapse. Collapsing waves are mathematical metaphors which are useful and descriptive. If the music is a wave, then the wave collapses on further notes by all the musicians in the context of where the wave comes from, its propulsivity, direction, depth and energy.

I choose a note. The wave collapses. An entire universe comes into being. An infinity of universes opens up of notes in superposition. It is as if the notes just happen. I cannot think that fast. If I stop to think I become paralyzed—it just has to happen. You’ve got to learn to let it go. Faster than thought, it is.

A brief example may be found in my Youtube video on an earlier post in this blog (Stein/Moss “Riverside After Dark”).

Daniella got it. Billy caught it. Judy was it. That is what it is like when we are in the zone. The highest levels of creativity occur in that zone of faster than thought, superluminal, entangled connectivity. We are individuals connected in, entangled in an elliptically called creative process.

For myself I feel like I am surfing a wave. The wave is complex and alive—can I shape my way through it by becoming the wave and simultaneously finding my individual arc through it, around it, till I come back to shore (the shores of consciousness)? That would be living the quantum life.

When I look at a rainbow, only I see it.  No, you see your own rainbow.  The physics of rainbows stipulates the center of a rainbow is the point opposite the sun, from your perspective.  Sunlight reflects off water droplets and rainbows are not concrete objects.  They cast no shadows and are not three-or other-dimensional.

My ego, body-based, differs from yours.  My reality is not identical with the reality of anyone else.  My history, my experience, my memory, none of it matches up exactly with those of anybody else.  Like the rainbow, I carry around my own continuum, light-cone, universe.

We live in both a macro and a subatomic universe.  The macro universe is ruled by Einstein, the subatomic universe by quantum law.  I submit we, each of us, reflect the alternate universe hypothesis so hot in today’s discussion among many physicists.  Each second, or rather, in the nanosecond of our reality, the existential point, we ride waves of energy, are carried places, surf the waves, move.  No one is sitting still.  At our stillest, in deep meditation, waves break on the beach of existence.  In satori we join with a quantum oneness.  Everything is one.  One holographic joining—a shared universe.  This experience of oneness is personal but feels universal.  The paradox of oneness and otherness is resolved.

If so, also resolved is the question of individual and total.  The total we are a part of we see as we see a rainbow.  Totality forms itself around our corporality.  We see it, experience it, from a singular perspective, yet it is Total.  We move through the Totality, sharing it, of it, and still a part of us remains apart from your Totality.

I carry my alternate universe around with me.  The quantum physicists who profess the concepts of what is referred to as string theory find unlimited, infinite numbers of quantum universes.  It is not simple—the gold standard of physics theories.  It is not elegant, and it is not pretty.  Simple would be melding Einstein and Bohr by living both in a shared and in a multiple world.  Everything would not only be relative, apart, and separate, but shared, responsive to action, and purposive.

Quantum theory describes superposition, a state of unqualification, potential, a wave that does not crash, Schrödinger’s cat neither dead or alive.  I live my life like that.  But not only do I wait for the wave to coalesce so I see which way it is breaking, I can make the wave emerge by making a move.  What I am saying is that the move does not have to be limited to our familiar 4-dimensional universe.

I will be making further efforts in the near future to merge the three pillars of existence—psychology, quantum physics, and relativity physics.

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